DNA from dung may be extracted using commercially available fecal DNA extraction kits. We here provide a protocol
for extraction of DNA from ivory, a protocol
for amplification and Sanger sequencing of DNA from dung or ivory, and an important protocol
on trimming the sequences and on querying each distinct haplotype sequence only once for a batch of ivory. Alternative protocols may also be available in the published literature for each of these steps.
As occurs between hybridizing species when females are non-dispersing (Petit and Excoffier 2009; Trends Ecol Evol 7:386), elephant mitochondrial markers are not helpful for establishing species boundaries, but are helpful for establishing geographic provenance (Ishida et al., 2013
). Papers by other authors that were the source of sequences are listed in the FAQs.
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